A

Property changes obtained by ageing a quenched or cold-worked alloy.

de: Alterung

fr: vieillissement

es: envejecimiento

Maintain at room temperature or higher temperatures to induce segregation and/or precipitation in supersaturated mixed crystals.

de: Altern, Auslagern

fr: maturation

es: maduración, envejecimiento

Cooling of the workpiece in still air.

de: Luftabkühlen

fr: refroidissement a l’air calme

es: enfriamiento al aire

en: forced air cooling, air quenching

de: –

fr: refroidissement a l’air souffle

es: enfriamiento en corriente de aire

Hardening with cooling in still air.

de: Lufthärten

fr: trempe a l’air

es: temple al aire

Patenting, in which controlled cooling takes place in air flow.

de: Luftpatentieren

fr: patentage a l’air

es: patentado al aire

de: Aluminiumnitrid

fr: nitrure d’aluminium

es: nitruro de aluminio

Thermochemical treatment to enrich the edge layer of a workpiece with boron and aluminium.

de: Boraluminieren

fr: –

es: aluminioboruración

Heat treatment of a workpiece at a suitable temperature and suitable maintaining time with subsequent cooling adapted to the intended purpose, e.g. to achieve desired microstructures and/or other desired properties.

Remark: However, as annealing serves as a generic term for various treatments, it is essential to add the term annealing with regard to the intended objective.

de: Glühen

fr: recuit, traitement de recuit

es: recocido

  • Annealing in which the phase transformation is decisive for the heat treatment result.

en: –

de: –

fr: –

es: recocido con cambio de fase, recocido de regeneración

  • Two successive annealing processes without intermediate cooling to room temperature.

en: double annealing

de: –

fr: double recuit

es: doble recocido

  • Annealing with cooling carried out in several stages, whereby the cooling rate need not be the same in each individual stage.

en: stepped annealing

de: –

fr: –

es: recocido escalonado

  • Annealing in which the workpieces move continuously through the furnace.

en: continuous annealing

de: –

fr: recuit continu, recuit au passage

es: recocido en continuo

  • Annealing below the eutectoid temperature or tempering, applied to hardened or case-hardened workpieces, generally to improve machinability.

en: softening back

de: –

fr: –

es: recocido subcrítico

  • Annealing of ferrous materials with complete austenitising followed by slow cooling to approach the equilibrium state.

en: full annealing, dead soft annealing

de: –

fr: recuit complet

es: recocido total

en: partial annealing, incomplete annealing

de: –

fr: –

es: recocido con austenizacion incompleta

  • Annealing in a closed container, with or without a suitable medium, to largely prevent oxidation of the surface.

en: box annealing, close annealing, pot annealing, coffin annealing, pack annealing

de: –

fr: recuit en caisse, recuit en pot

es: recocido en caja

  • Annealing below the eurectoid temperature

en: sub-critical annealing

de: –

fr: –

es: recocido subcrítico

  • Annealing of steel strip before coiling.

en: line annealing

de: –

fr: recuit a ligne

es: –

  • Annealing under conditions where surface oxidation or scaling occurs.

en: black annealing, open annealing

de: –

fr: recuit noir

es: recocido

Temperature at which a workpiece is held during an annealing process.

Remark: The annealing process may involve holding at one or more temperatures.

de: Glühtemperatur

fr: température de recuit

es: temperatura de recocido

Period of time from the beginning to the end of maintaining at an annealing temperature.

de: Glühdauer

fr: –

es: duración del recocido, tiempo de recocido

Ageing at one or more temperatures above room temperature.

de: Warmauslagern

fr: vieillissement accéléré

es: envejecimiento acelerado

  • Heat ageing at two or more rising temperatures with intermediate cooling in each case, usually to room temperature

en: interrupted ageing treatment, interrupted ageing, step ageing treatment, step ageing

de: –

fr: –

es: envejecimiento escalonado

  • Artificial ageing with continuous or gradual increase in temperature

en: progressive ageing treatment, progressive ageing

de: –

fr: –

es: envejecimiento progresivo

Thermomechanical treatment in which the metastable austenite is plastically deformed before being transformed into martensite and/or bainite.

de: Austenitformhärten

fr: austéniformage

es: ausforming

Heating a ferrous material to a temperature at which all the ferrite is converted into austenite.

de: Austenitisieren

fr: austénitisation

es: austenización

  • Austenitising and cooling at such a rate that a significant increase in hardness occurs, preferably through bainite formation

en: –

de: –

fr: (trempe bainitique)

es: temple bainítico

Period of time from the beginning to the end of maintaining an austenitising temperature.

de: Austenitisierdauer

fr: –

es: –

Temperature at which a workpiece is held during austenitising.

Remark: Austenitising may involve maintaining at one or more temperatures.

de: Austenitisiertemperatur

fr: température d’austénitisation

es: temperatura de austenización

Average time-related temperature decrease in an area of the cooling curve.

de: mittlere Abkühlungsgeschwindigkeit

fr: vitesse moyenne de refroidissement

es: velocidad media de enfriamiento

B

Austenitising and cooling of a workpiece with a temperature decrease to a temperature above Ms corresponding at least to the critical cooling course for the bainite stage, holding at this temperature until the end of the transformation and then cooling to room temperature.

de: Umwandeln in der Bainitstufe

fr: trempe bainitique

es: temple bainitico, austempering

Patenting in which rings or batches pass through the furnace for austenitising and the cooling medium without being unwound.

de: Bundpatentieren

fr: patentage en couronne, patentage a la plongée

es: patentado en paquete

Patenting in which controlled cooling is carried out in a liquid medium.

de: Badpatentieren

fr: patentage au bain

es: patentado por inmersion

Creating a ß-phase in certain titanium alloys by heating in a temperature range in which this phase forms, followed by suitable cooling to avoid the decay of this phase.

de: Erzeugen einer ß-Phase

fr: –

es: –

Tempering in a neutral atmosphere with the aim of partially or completely converting the bound carbon into graphite.

de: Tempern durch Graphitisieren

fr: malléabilisation par graphitisation

es: maleabilización de nucleo negro

Treatment simulating the heat treatment cycle of the carburising process without carburising medium.

de: Blindaufkohlen

fr: cémentation à blanc

es: cementación simulada

Annealing of bare steel below the eutectoid temperature under conditions which result in a uniform blue oxide layer.

de: Bläuen

fr: bleuissage

es: –

Eutectoid in the iron-nitrogen system.

de: Braunit

fr: braunite

es: braunita

de: Gasnitrieren ohne Bildung einer Verbindungsschicht

es: –

Heating the workpiece to such high temperatures that irreversible structural damage and impairment of the properties (e.g. grain boundary melting) occur.

de: Verbrennen

fr: brulure

es: quemado

  • Temperature above which the material can start to burn

en: –

de: –

fr: température de brulure

es: temperatura de quemado

C

Ratio of the vapour pressure of carbon in the state under consideration (e.g. in austenite of certain carbon content) to the vapour pressure of graphite as the reference state at the same temperature.

de: Kohlenstoff-Aktivität, C-Aktivität

fr: activité du carbone

es: actividad de carbono

Amount of carbon in grams that can be released from 1 m3 of gas at a given temperature to the surface of the workpiece while the C-level drops from 1% to 0.9%.

de: C-Verfügbarkeit

fr.: disponibilité en carbone

es: disponibilidad en carbono

Marking for the ability of a carbon-releasing agent to carburise or decarburise a workpiece at a certain temperature up to a certain marginal carbon content.

de: Kohlenstoffpegel C-Pegel

fr: potentiel carbone

es: potencial de carbono

Carbon distribution as a function of distance from a reference point, usually the surface of the workpiece.

fr: Kohlenstoffverfügbarkeit, Kohlenstoffverlauf

fr: courbe de la répartition du carbone

es: curva de concentración en carbono, curva de cementación

Carburisation to restore the original edge layer carbon content of a workpiece decarburised during a previous heat treatment.

de: Wiederaufkohlen

fr: recarburation

es: recarburación, restauración

Amount of carbon permeated per unit of time and area divided by the difference between C-level and marginal carbon content.

de: Kohlenstoff-Übergangszahl, C-Übergangszahl

fr: coefficient de transfert du carbone

es: coeficiente de transfercncia de carbono

Edge layer of a workpiece in which the carbon and nitrogen content has been increased by carbonitriding.

de: Carbonitrierte Randschicht

fr: couche carbonitrurée

es: capa carbonitrurada

Thermochemical treatment of a workpiece made of ferrous material in the austenitic state to enrich the edge layer with carbon and nitrogen, whereby the enrichment with carbon predominates. These elements form a solid solution with the austenite.

Remark: As a rule, this treatment is immediately followed by hardening.

de: Carbonitrieren

fr: carbonitruration

es: carbonitruración

  • Carbonitriding in a molten salt containing cyanide 

en: cyaniding, cyanide case hardening, liquid cyaniding

de: –

fr: cyanuration

es: cianuración

Edge layer of a carburised workpiece in which the carbon content has been increased by carburisation.

de: Aufgekohlte Randschicht, Aufkohlungsschicht

fr: couche cémentée

es: capa cementada

Thermochemical treatment to enrich the edge layer of a workpiece with carbon.

Remark: For ferrous materials, this treatment is carried out at least above Ac1, but generally above Ac3.

de: Aufkohlen

fr: cémentation, carburation

es: cementación

Vertical distance from the surface to a boundary characterising the thickness of the carbon enriched layer. This limit must be specified precisely.

de: Aufkohlungstiefe

fr: profondeur de cémentation

es: profundidad de cementación

The period of time during the carburisation process during which carbon is transferred into the surface of the workpiece.

de: Aufkohlungsperiode

fr: période de cémentation

es: intervalo de cementación, periodo de cementación

Temperature at which the workpiece is kept during carburisation.

de: Aufkohlungstemperatur

fr: température de cémentation

es: temperatura de cementación

Period of time between the beginning and end of a carburisation treatment.

fr: durée totale de cémentation

es: tiempo de cementación

Reference value for determining the distance from the surface to the layer in which the edge layer of a heat-treated workpiece is significantly affected.

de: Grenzwert

fr: profondeur limite

es: índice de referencia

Carburisation or carbonitriding with subsequent heat treatment leading to hardening.

de: Einsatzhärten

fr: –

es: cementación con temple directo

Hardening of a carburised workpiece after previous cooling to below Ar1 and reheating to an optimum hardening temperature for the carburised edge layer.

de: Randhärten

fr: –

es: endurecimiento superficial

Hardening with cooling in cold dies.

de: Quettenhärten

fr: trempe en coquille

es: –

Thermochemical treatment to enrich the edge layer of a workpiece with chromium and aluminium.

de: Chromaluminieren

fr: chromaluminisation

es: cromoalurninización

Thermochemical treatment to enrich the edge layer of a workpiece with boron and chromium.

de: Borchromieren

fr: –

es: cromoboruración

de: Chromnitrid e

fr: nitrure de chrome

es: nitruro de cromo

Thermochemical treatment to enrich the edge layer of a workpiece with chromium and silicon.

de: Chromsilizieren

fr: –

es: cromosiliciuración

Thermochemical treatment to enrich the edge layer of a workpiece with chromium and vanadium.

de: Chromvanadieren

fr: –

es: cromovanadización

Annealing under conditions where a bare (low oxide) surface is maintained or produced.

de: Blankglühen

es: recocido brillante

Area within a solid solution with a higher concentration of dissolved elements than corresponding to the average concentration. This area is surrounded by a zone depleted of these elements.

de: Bereiche

fr: –

es: –

Annealing of steel at a temperature, usually considerably above Ac-, with sufficient maintaining time to achieve coarse grain, e.g. for the purpose of improving machinability.

de: Grobkornglühen

fr: recuit de grossissement du grain

es: recocido de crecimiento de grano

Precipitation that has coherent interfaces with its parent phase.

de: kohärente Ausscheidung

fr: –

es: precipitado coherente

Austenitising under such conditions that only austenite is formed.

de: Vollständiges Austenitisieren

fr: –

es: austenización completa

Chemical compound between more than one element, mostly metals, and nitrogen.

de: Mehrstoffnitrid

fr: nitrure complexe

es: nitruro complejo

Outer part of the edge layer of a thermochemically treated workpiece in which one or more chemical compounds have formed between the diffused element(s) and one or more elements of the base material.

fr: Verbindungsschicht

fr: couche de combinaison

es: capa de combinación

Cooling with uninterrupted temperature decrease.

de: kontinuierliches Abkühlen

fr: refroidissement continu

es: enfriamiento continuo

Patenting, in which the unrolled product continuously passes through the furnace for austenitising and the cooling medium.

de: Durchlaufpatentieren

fr: patentage en continu

es: patentado continuo

Precipitation from a supersaturated solid solution that occurs simultaneously throughout the parent phase, although the rate of precipitation may vary in different areas.

de: kontinuierliche Ausscheidung

fr: précipitation généralisée

es: precipitación continua

Heat treatment in a gaseous agent which exerts an intended effect on the chemical composition of the edge layer of the workpiece.

de: Wärmebehandlung unter kontrollierter Atmosphäre

fr: traitement thermique sous atmosphère contrôlée

es: tratamiento térmico bajo atmosfera controlada

Cooling according to a preset programme.

de: programmiertes Abkühlen, gesteuertes Abkühlen

fr: refroidissement contrôlé

es: enfriamiento controlado

Heating according to a pre-set programme.

de: programmiertes Wärmen, gesteuertes Wärmen

fr: chauffage programme

es: calentamiento programado

Decrease the temperature of a workpiece.

de: Abkühlen

fr: refroidissement

es: enfriamiento

  • Cooling of a workpiece by immersion in a liquid agent (immersion cooling, immersion quenching)

de: Abkühlen eines Werkstückes durch Eintauchen in ein flüssiges Mittel

fr: –

es: enfriamiento por inmersio

Graphical representation of the cooling regulation.

de: Abkühlungskurve

fr: courbe de refroidissement

es: curva de enfriamiento

Inner area of a heat-treated workpiece.

de: Kern

fr: cœur (d’un produit)

es: núcleo

Temperature decrease related to the chosen unit of time for a specific point or a specific area of a cooling curve.

de: Abkühlungsgeschwindigkeit

fr: vitesse de refroidissement

es: velocidad de enfriamiento

  • The cooling rate at a given temperature 

en: instantaneous cooling rate

de: Abkühlungsgeschwindigkeit bei einer bestimmten Temperatur

fr: vitesse instantanée de refroidissement

es: velocidad instantanea de enfriamiento

  • Cooling of a workpiece during heat treatment at a speed equal to or less than in still air 

en: slow cooling

de: –

fr: –

es: enfriamiento lento

Hardening of a carburised workpiece after previous cooling to below Ar1 and reheating to the optimum hardening temperature for the core material, generally just above Ac3 of the core material.

de: Kernhärten

fr: –

es: temple de nucleo

Ability of a cooling medium to produce a specific cooling course under standardised conditions.

de: Abkühlvermögen

fr: pouvoir refroidissant

es: poder de enfriamiento

Prescribed time-related course of the temperature change of the workpiece during cooling.

de: Abkühlungsvorschrift

fr: loi de refroidissement

es: ley de enfriamiento

Temperature from which a workpiece is cooled.

de: Abkühltemperatur

fr: –

es: temperatura de enfriamiento

Period of time from the beginning to the end of a cooling process. As a rule, the initial and final temperatures are indicated.

Period of time from the beginning to the end of a cooling process.

de: Abkühlungsdauer

fr: durée de refroidissement

es: duración del enfriamiento

Diameter of a workpiece at which just 50% martensite is achieved in the core for a given cooling intensity.

de: kritischer Durchmesser

fr: diamètre critique de trempe

es: diámetro crítico

Lowest cooling rate at which undesirable structural transformations are just avoided.

de: kritische Abkühlungsgeschwindigkeit

fr: vitesse de refroidissement critique

es: velocidad critica de enfriamiento

Course of cooling in a workpiece in such a way that the formation of certain structural components is suppressed and only desired transformations take place.

de: kritischer Abkühlungsverlauf

fr: loi de refroidissement critique

es: ley de enfriamiento crítico

Cooling process in which the formation of ferrite, pearlite or bainite is suppressed and the austenite can transform into martensite.

de: kritischer Abkühlverlauf für die Martensitbildung

fr: loi de refroidissement critique de trempe martensitique

es: curva de enfriamento crítico de temple

Cooling rate at which the transformation of austenite into ferrite, pearlite or bainite is avoided.

de: kritische Abkühlgeschwindigkeit fiir die Martensitbilduing

fr: vitesse de refroidissement critique de trempe martensitique

es: velocidad crítica de temple

Annealing of steel with oscillations around the eutectoid temperature, usually to achieve spherical carbides.

de: Pendelglühen

fr: recuit oscillant

es: recocido oscilante

de: Wärmebehandlung unter Anwendung von wiederholten identischen Temperatur-Zeit-Folgen

fr: –

es: tratamiento térmico ciclico

D

Period of time from the beginning to the end of a heating.

de: Wärmdauer

fr: durée de chauffage

es: –

Cold ageing of a solution-annealed and quenched alloy retarded by holding at temperatures below room temperature.

de: verzögerte Kaltauslagerung

fr: –

es: maduración retardada

Gas carburising atmosphere created by the evaporation of liquid hydrocarbons dropped into the furnace.

de: Aufkohlen mittels Eintropfverfahren

fr: cémentation par instillation

es: cementación por goteo

Thermochemical treatment to remove excess nitrogen from the edge layer of a nitrided workpiece.

de: Entsticken

fr: dénitruration

es: denitruración

Annealing following hot forming without intermediate cooling to room temperature.

de: Glühen aus der Warmumformhitze

fr: recuit dans la chaude de formage

es: recocido directo desde la forja en caliente

Annealing at a sufficiently high temperature with long-term maintaining at this temperature in order to reduce local differences in chemical composition present in the workpiece due to composition by diffusion.

de: Diffusionsglühen, Homogenglühen

fr: recuit d’homogénéisation, homogénéisation

es: recocido de difusion, homogeneización

That period of time within the carburisation time when carbon diffuses inwards exclusively from the carbon enriched edge layer.

de: Diffusionsperiode

fr: période de diffusion

es: periodo de difusión

Edge layer or part of the edge layer of a thermochemically treated workpiece, in which the diffused element(s) is/are present in solid solution or also as precipitation. The content of this or these elements drops continuously down to that of the base material.

de: Diffusionsschicht

fr: couche de diffusion

es: zona de difusión

Quenching of a workpiece immediately after a thermochemical treatment.

de: Direktabschrecken

fr: trempe directe

es: temple directo

Heating in which the workpiece is directly exposed to the influence of a heat source.

de: direktes Wärmen

fr: chauffage direct

es: calentamiento directo

Quenching of a carburised workpiece immediately after carburisation, if necessary after cooling to a lower temperature (suitable for hardening the carburised layer).

de: Direkthärten

fr: durcissement par trempe directe

es: temple directo

Precipitation from a supersaturated solid solution in which the parent phase consists of areas that are fully converted to equilibrium phases and those that are not.

de: diskontinuierliche Ausscheidung

fr: –

es: precipitación discontinua

Hardening a carburised workpiece twice. The first quenching is usually made from the hardening temperature of the core material, generally immediately after carburisation, the second is made from the hardening temperature of the edge layer.

de: Doppelhärten

fr: durcissement par trempe double

es.: doble temple

E

Vertical distance from the surface of a case-hardened workpiece to the level at which the hardness measured under a test load of 9.81 N is 550 HV.

de: Einsatzhärtungstiefe

fr: profondeur conventionnelle de cémentation

es: profundidad útil de cementación

Vertical distance from the surface of a hardened workpiece to the point where the hardness corresponds to an appropriately defined limit value.

de: Einhärtungstiefe

fr: profondeur de trempe

es: profundidad de temple

Vertical distance from the surface of a nitrided workpiece to the level at which the hardness corresponds to a specified limit value.

de: Nitrierhärtetiefe

fr: profondeur conventionnelle de nitruration

es: profundadad de nitruración total

Impulse hardening, in which heating is carried out by means of an electron beam.

de: Elektronenstrahlhärten

fr: trempe par bombardement électronique

es: temple por bombardeo electrónico

Hold with such a long duration that an undesirable structural change, e.g. grain coarsening, already occurs at usual temperatures, but this can be reversed by further treatment.

de: Überzeiten

fr: –

es: mantenimiento excesivo (a temperatura)

F

Hardening of a workpiece after heating a more or less large area of the cross-section with a flame.

de: Flammhärten

fr: trempe après chauffage à la flamme, trempe au chalumeau

es: temple a la llama

Direct, mostly on the edge layer or localised heating by means of a flame.

de: Flammwärmen

fr.: chauffage à la flamme, chauffage au chalumeau

es: calentamiento a la llama

Annealing, generally carried out at a higher than usual temperature, with a relatively short maintaining time before cooling.

de: Stoßglühen

fr: recuit rapide, recuit éclair

es: recocido rápido

Gas carburisingcarried out in a medium consisting of solid particles suspended in a gas stream.

de: Aufkohlen im Wirbelbett

fr: cémentation en lit fluidisé

es: cementación en lecho fluidificado

Cooling of the workpiece in the furnace after switching off the heating.

de.: Ofenabkühlen

fr: refroidissement au four

es: enfriamiento en horno

G

Carbonitriding in a gaseous medium.

de: Gascarbonitrieren

fr: carbonitruration gazeuse

es: carbonitruración gaseosa

Carburisation in a gaseous medium.

de: Gasaufkohlen

fr: cémentation gazeuse

es: cementación gaseosa

Nitriding in a gaseous medium.

de: Gasnitrieren

fr: nitruration gazeuse

es: nitruación gaseosa

Nitro-carburising in a gaseous medium.

de: Gasnitrocarburieren

fr: nitrocarburation gazeuse

es: nitrocarburación gaseosa

Heat treatment of cast iron or hypereutectoid steels with the aim of precipitating the carbon as graphite.

de: Graphitisieren

fr: traitement de graphitisation

es: recocido de grafitización

First change in the concentration of the dissolved elements that occurs at certain crystallographic levels before precipitation from the supersaturated solid solution begins.

de: Guinier-Preston-Zonen

fr: zones de Guinier-Preston

es: zonas de Guinier-Preston

H

Ability of a steel to transform into martensite or bainite under specified hardening conditions (e.g. face quenching test).

de: Härtbarkeit

fr: trempabilité

es: templabilidad

State of increased hardness achieved by hardening in a workpiece.

de: Härtung

fr: durcissement par trempe

es: endurecimiento por temple

Actual penetration of hardness when hardening a workpiece, measured by the depth of hardening.

de: Einhärtung

fr: pénétration de trempe

es: penetración de temple

Highest hardness achievable by quenching under ideal conditions.

de: Aufhärtbarkeit

fr: capacité de durcissement par trempe

es: capacidad de endurecimiento por temple

Hardening following hot forming without intermediate cooling and reheating.

de: Härten aus der Warmumformhitze

fr: trempe directe dans la chaude de formage

es: temple desde el calor de forja

Temperature from which a workpiece iscooled during hardening.

de: Härtetemperatur

fr: température de trempe

es: temperatura de temple

  • Temperature range from which a workpiece can be hardened

en: hardening temperature range

de: –

fr: –

es: –

Hardness as a function of the distance to a reference point (generally to the surface).

de: Härteverlauf

fr: –

es: perfil de dureza

  • Graphical representation of the hardness curve over the entire cross-section of a hardened or quenched and tempered round bar

en: hardness penetration diagram, hardness penetration curve

de: –

fr: courbe en U

es: curva en U

Reaction of metals with gases to form thin layers that cause interference colours or reduce the gloss of the surface.

de: Anlaufen

fr: –

es: pavonado

Process in the course of which a workpiece or an area of a workpiece is deliberately subjected to temperature-time sequences and, if necessary, additionally to other physical and/or chemical effects in order to achieve desired microstructures and properties.

de: Wärmebehandlung

fr: traitement thermique

es: tratamiento térmico

  • Heat treatment that covers the entire workpiece

en: –

de: –

fr: –

es: tratamiento térmico total

  • Controlled change in carbon content through heat treatment

en: carbon adjustment

de: –

fr: –

es: –

  • Heat treatment in which an electric current is used in a liquid agent between the workpiece connected as a cathode and an anode

en: electrolytic heat treatment

de: –

fr: –

es: tratamiento térmico electrolitico

  • Time between leaving the heat treatment furnace and immersion in the quenching agent

en: quench delay time, delay time

de: –

fr: –

es: tiempo de transferencia

  • Heat treatment carried out below the eurectoid temperature

en: sub-critical heat treatment

de: –

fr: –

es: tratamiento térmico subcritico

Heat treatment carried out in an agent consisting of solid particles suspended in a gas stream.

de: Wärmebehandlung im Wirbelstrombett

fr: traitement thermique en lit fluidise

es: tratamiento térmico en lecho fluido

Heating a workpiece until the target temperature is reached in the outermost edge layer.

de: Anwärmen

fr: –

es: –

Raising the temperature of a workpiece.

de: Wärmen, Erhitzen

fr: chauffage

es: calentamiento

  • Heating for the intentional generation of temperature grades in the workpiece

en: differential heating

de: –

fr: –

es: calentamiento diferencial

Graphical representation of the heat regulation.

de: Wärmkurve

fr: courbe de chauffage

es: curva de calentamiento

Period of time from the beginning to the end of the temperature equalisation.

de: Durchwärmdauer

fr: durée du chauffage d’égalisation

es: duración de calentamiento profundo

Mean time-related temperature increase for a specific area of the heat curve.

de: Wärmgeschwindigkeit, Erwärmungsgeschwindigkeit

fr: vitesse de chauffage

es: velocidad de calentamiento

Prescribed time-related course of the temperature change of the workpiece during heating.

de: Wärmvorschrift

fr: loi de chauffage

es: ley de calentamiento

Period of time from the beginning to the end of a heat up time.

de: Anwärmdauer

fr: –

es: –

Period of time until the treatment temperature is reached in the entire cross-section of the workpiece.

de: Erwärmdauer

fr: durée de mise à température

es: duración de calentamiento

Carburisation at temperatures above 950°C

de: Hochtemperaturaufkohlen

fr: cémentation à haute température

es: cementación a alta temperatura

de: Anlassen bei Temperaturen oberhalb 500 °C

fr: –

es: revenido dúctil

Section of a temperature-time sequence in which the desired temperature is maintained over the entire cross-section of the workpiece.

de: Halten

fr: maintien à température

es: rnantenimiento a temperatura

Temperature at which the workpiece is maintained.

de: Haltetemperatur

fr: température de maintien

es: temperatura de mantenimiento

Period of time during which the workpiece is kept at temperature.

de: Haltedauer

fr: durée de maintien

es: tiempo di mantenimiento (a temperatura)

Cooling rate greater than the critical cooling rate.

de: überkritische Abkühlungsgeschwindigkeit

fr: –

es: velocidad hipercrítica de enfriamiento

I

Critical diameter of a workpiece quenched in a medium with infinitely rapid cooling rate.

de: idealer kritischer Durchmesser

fr: diamètre critique idéal

es: diámetro crítico ideal

Hardening with very short-term austenitisation at an increased temperature compared to the usual austenitising temperature, achieved by localised high energy input.

de: Impulshärten

fr: trempe par impulsion

es: temple por impulsos

Heating in which the heat transfer from the heat source to the workpiece takes place through an intermediate medium.

de: indirektes Wärmen

fr: chauffage indirect

es: calentamiento indirecto

Hardening in which heating is carried out by induced eddy currents, usually used as edge layer hardening.

de: Induktionshärten

fr: trempe après chauffage par induction, trempe par induction

es: temple pur inducción

  • Induction hardening, consisting of feed heating and directly subsequent quenching through a shower

en: scanning induction hardening

de: –

fr: –

es: temple por inducción con avance

Heating by induced eddy currents.

de: Induktionswärmen

fr: chauffage par induction

es: calentamiento por inducción

de: Eisennitrid

fr: nitrure de fer

es: nitruro de hierro

Thermomechanical treatment of a steel in which plastic deformation is carried out during the transformation of austenite into pearlite.

de: Umform-Perlitisieren

fr: isoformage

es: isoforming

Thermomechanical treatment of a steel in which plastic deformation is carried out during the transformation of austenite into pearlite.

de: Umform-Perlitisieren

fr: isoformage

es: isoforming

Solution annealing followed by cooling to and maintaining at a lower temperature to achieve isothermal segregation of the super cooled high temperature phase. For ferrous materials, it involves the complete decomposition of the super cooled austenite into ferrite and perlite, perlite or cementite and pearlite.

de: Perlitisieren

fr: recuit isotherme

es: recocido isotérmico

J

Permanent bonding or other bringing together of two or more workpieces. The bond is created locally and increased as a whole.

de: Fügen

fr: assemblage

es: unión

L

Impulse hardening, in which heating is carried out by means of a high energy laser beam through scanning or pulses.

de: Laserstrahlhärten

fr: trempe au laser

es: temple por laser

Hardening with quenching in a bath of molten lead.

de: Bleibadhärten

fr: trempe en bain de plomb

es: temple en bano de plom

Bath patenting in a molten lead bath.

de: Bleibadpatentieren

fr: patentage au plomb

es: patentado en bano de plomo

de: Aufkohlen in einem flüssigen Medium

fr: cémentation liquide

es: cementación liquida

  • Carburisation in a liquid medium, usually a molten salt, in which an electric current flows between the workpiece connected to a cathode and a graphite anode 

en: electrolytic carburizing

de: Aufkohlen in einem flüssigen Medium

fr: –

es: –

Heat treatment that only covers certain spots or areas of the workpiece.

de: örtliche Wärmebehandlung, partielle Wärmebehandlung

fr: traitement thermique local, traitement thermique partiel

es: tratamiento térmico local, tratamiento térmico parcial

en: bulk heat treatment

de: –

fr: traitement thermique dans la masse

es: tratamiento térmico en toda la masa

en: surface heat treatment

de: –

fr: traitement thermique superficiel

es: tratamiento térmico superficia

Heating that only covers certain spots or areas of the workpiece.

de: örtliches Wärmen, partielles Wärmen

fr: chauffage localisé

es: calentamiento localizado selectivo

Carburisation that is limited to certain areas of the workpiece.

de: Örtlich begrenztes Aufkohlen

fr: cémentation localisée

es: cementación selectiva, cementación local

Hardening that only covers predefined spots or areas of the workpiece.

de: örtlich begrenztes Härten (partielles Härten)

fr: trempe locale, durcissement local par trempe

es: temple local, temple parcial

Annealing under conditions that produce a low-scaling surface.

de: Zunderarmglühen

fr: –

es: –

de: Anlassen bei Temperaturen unterhalb 250 °C

fr: revenu de détente

es: revenido bajo

M

Annealing of ledeburitic cast iron to obtain malleable cast iron by cementite decay, either by decarburisation or by graphitising.

de: Tempern

fr: recuit de malléabilisation, malléabilisation

es: recocido de maleabilización, maleabilización

Precipitation heat treatment with artificial ageing of a martensitic structure formed during cooling after solution annealing, applied to a specific group of ferrous materials for the purpose of precipitating one or more inter metallic phases in a very low carbon martensite matrix.

de: Martensitaushärten

fr: maraging

es: maraging

Hardening with cooling in oil, in a molten salt or metal with the aim of achieving temperature equalisation in the workpiece as far as possible before martensite formation. Martensite formation should primarily take place at cooling from the temperature of the hot bath to room temperature.

de: Warmbadhärten

fr: trempe étagée martensitique

es: martempering

Conditions under which the workpiece is cooled, e.g. type and temperature of the cooling medium, relative movement, etc.

de: Abkühlart, Abkühlbedingungen

fr: mode de refroidissement

es: metodo de enfriamiento

de: Molybdännitrid

fr: nitrure de molybdène

es: nitruro de molibdeno

Thermochemical treatment to enrich the edge layer of a workpiece with more than one element.

de: Auflegieren mit mehreren Elementen

fr: diffusion d’éléments multiples

es: –

Nitriding carried out under two or more nitriding conditions.

de: Mehrstufennitrieren

fr: nitruration séquentielle

es: nitruración escalonada

N

Ageing at room temperature.

de: Kaltauslagern

fr: vieillissement naturel

es: envejecimiento a temperatura ambiente

Chemical compound of an element, usually a metal, and nitrogen.

de: Nitrid

fr: nitrure

es: nitruro

  • Solid solution of nitrogen in ɣ-iron

en: nitrogen austenite

de: –

fr: –

es: nitroaustenita

  • Solid solution of nitrogen in α-iron

en: nitrogen ferrite

de: –

fr: –

es: nitroferrita

Alloying element of a ferrous material with a higher affinity to nitrogen than iron.

de: Nitridbildner

fr: –

es: elemento formador de nitruros

Compound layer that can form during nitriding.

de: Nitridschicht

fr: couche de nitrure

es: capa blanca, capa de nitruros

Edge layer of a nitrided workpiece in which the nitrogen content has been increased by nitriding.

de: Nitrierschicht

fr: couche nitrurée

es: capa nitrurada

Vertical distance from the surface of a nitrided workpiece to a boundary characterising the thickness of the nitrogen-enriched layer. This limit must be specified precisely.

de: Aufstickungstiefe

fr: profondeur de nitruration

es: profundidad de nitruración

Thermochemical treatment to enrich the edge layer of a workpiece with nitrogen.

de: Nitrieren, Aufsticken

fr: nitruration

es: nitruración

  • Nitriding in a liquid medium

en: liquid nitriding

de: –

fr: nitruration liquide

es: nitruación liquida

  • Nitriding in a salt bath at a relatively low temperature to limit nitrogen enrichment

en: –

de: –

fr: nitruration douce

es: nitruración blanda

  • Nitriding of a workpiece made of ferrous material in the austenitic state

en: austenitic nitriding

de: –

fr: –

es: nitruración austenitica

  • Nitriding accelerated by a high intensity electrostatic field

en: electrostatic nitriding

de: –

fr: –

es: –

  • Nitriding in a liquid medium

en: liquid nitriding

de: –

fr: nitruration liquide

es: nitruación liquida

Temperature at which the workpiece is nitrided.

de: Nitriertemperatur

fr: température de nitruration

es: temperatura de nitruración

Period of time between the beginning and end of the nitriding process.

de: Nitrierdauer

fr: durée totale de nitruration

es: tiempo de nitruración

Thermochemical treatment for enriching the edge layer of a workpiece made of ferrous material with nitrogen and carbon, whereby the enrichment with nitrogen predominates and leads to the formation of a compound layer. Underneath the compound layer is a diffusion layer enriched with nitrogen.

de: Nitrocarburieren

fr: nitrocarburation

es: nitrocarburación

Marking for the ability of a nitrogen-releasing agent to nitrogenise or de-nitrogenise a workpiece at a certain temperature up to a certain marginal nitrogen content.

de: N-Pegel

fr: potentiel azote

es: potential de nitrogen

Nitrogen distribution as a function of distance from a reference point, usually the surface of the workpiece.

de: Stickstoffpegel, Stickstoffverlauf

fr: courbe de la répartition de l’azote

es: curva de nitruración

Cooling with interrupted temperature decrease.

de: Stufenabkühlen, gestuftes Abkühlen

fr: refroidissement interrompu

es: enfriamiento escalonado, enfriamiento interrumpido

Heat treatment of a ferrous material with austenitisation and subsequent cooling in still air or inert gas to achieve, generally, a uniform microstructure with fine pearlite.

de: Normalglühen

fr: normalisation

es: normalizado

O

Cooling of a workpiece by immersion in oil or by spraying with oil.

de: Ölabkühlen, Ölabschrecken

fr: refroidissement à l’huile, trempe à l’huile

es: enfriamiento en aceite

Hardening by quenching in oil.

de: Ölhärten

fr: –

es: temple en aceite

de: Anlassen in einem Ölbad

fr: –

es: revenido en aceite

Each single step of a heat treatment.

de: Arbeitsgang

fr: opération (de traitement thermique)

es: operación (de tratamiento térmico)

en: conditioning treatment

de: vorbereitende Wärmebehandlung

fr: traitement préliminaire

es: tratamiento previo de acondicionado

Artificial ageing at such high temperatures or with such long holding times that the optimum property values are not achieved.

de: Überaltern

fr: survieillissement

es: –

  • Increase in hardness due to ageing

en: age hardening

de: –

fr: –

es: endurecimiento por envejecimiento

Heating a workpiece to such high temperatures that undesirable changes in the material (e.g. grain coarsening) already occur during the usual maintaining time, but which can be reversed by further treatment.

de: Überhitzen

fr: surchauffe

es: sobrecalentamiento

Nitriding, in which oxygen is deliberately diffused in at the same time.

de: Oxinitrieren

fr: –

es: oxinitruración

Nitrocarburising, in which oxygen is deliberately diffused into the compound layer at the same time.

de: Oxynitrocarburieren

fr: –

es: oxinitrocarburación

P

Nitriding in a powdery medium.

de: Pulvernitrieren

fr: nitruation solide

es: nitruación solida

Phase from which another phase has been eliminated.

de: Mutterphase

fr: phase mère

es: fase madre

Austenitising under such conditions that no complete transformation of the ferrite into austenite takes place.

de: Teilaustenitisieren, unvollständiges Austenitisieren

fr: austénitisation partielle

es: austenización parcial

Carburisation by means of a paste applied to the workpiece surface.

de: Pastenaufkohlen

fr: –

es: cementación en medio pastoso

Heat treatment of wire and strip consisting of austenitising and suitable cooling to achieve a microstructure favourable for subsequent cold forming.

de: Patentieren

fr: patentage

es: patentado

Carbonitriding carried out in a carbon and nitrogen emitting atmosphere at reduced pressure in a high-current glow discharge between the workpiece connected as cathode and the anode.

de: Plasmacarbonitrieren

fr: carbonitruration par bombardement ionique

es: carbonitruración por plasma

Carburisation carried out in a high-current glow discharge between the workpiece connected as cathode and the anode at reduced pressure in a gas.

de: Plasmaaufkohlen

fr: cémentation par bombardement ionique

es: cementación por plasma

Heat treatment carried out on a glow discharge between the workpiece connected as a cathode and an anode in a suitable atmosphere at reduced pressure.

de: Plasmawärmebehandlung

fr: traitement thermique par bombardement ionique

es: tratamiento térmico por bombardeo iónico

Nitriding carried out in a high-current glow discharge between the workpiece connected as cathode and the anode at reduced pressure in a gas.

de: Plasmanitrieren

fr: nitruration par bombardement ionique

es: nitruración por plasma

Carburisation in a powdery medium.

de: Pulveraufkohlen

fr: cémentation solide

es: cementación solida

Phase resulting from a precipitation.

de: Ausscheidung, ausgeschiedene Phase

fr: précipité

es: precipitado

Formation of a new phase in a solid solution, caused by the decreasing solubility of the dissolved elements with decreasing temperature.

de: Ausscheidungsvorgang

fr: précipitation

es: precipitación

Hardening, achieved by precipitation of a component in a supersaturated solid solution.

de: Aushärtung

fr: durcissement par précipitation

es: endurecimiento por precipiiación

Heat treatment consisting of solution annealing and cooling at such a rate that the solution state reached is maintained as long as possible at least until the ageing temperature is reached, followed by ageing.

de: Aushärten

fr: –

es: tratamiento de solubilización y envejecimiento

Heating to a temperature below the intended treatment temperature.

de: Vorwärmen

fr: préchauffage

es: precalentamiento

Processes that take place in the lattice of a supersaturated solid solution during aging before the excretion of the new phase begins.

de: Vorausscheidung

fr: pré-précipitation

es: preprecipitación

Gas nitriding carried out at a pressure higher than atmospheric pressure.

de: Überdrucknitrieren

fr: –

es: –

Heat treatment in a gaseous agent that avoids chemical reactions with the edge layer of the workpiece.

de: Wärmebehandlung unter Schutzgasatmosphäre

fr: traitement thermique sous atmosphère protectrice

es: tratamiento térmico bajo atmosfera protectora

Heating through repeated short energy pulses.

de: gepulstes Wärmen

fr: chauffage par impulsions

es: calentamiento por impulsos

Q

de: Alterung nach raschem Abkühleng

fr: –

es: –

Austenitising and cooling at such a rate that a significant increase in hardness occurs by transformation, preferably by martensite formation.

de: Härten

fr: traitement de durcissement par trempe, (trempe martensitique)

es: temple martensitico, temple

  • Hardening with a cooling rate lower than the critical cooling rate so that the austenite transforms into martensite and one or more other microstructures

en: slack quenching

de: –

fr: trempe incomplète

es: temple incompleto

en: fog hardening

de: –

fr: –

es: –

es: brine hardening

de: –

fr:

es: temple en agua salada

  • Hardening after temperature equalisation of the entire cross-section of a workpiece

en: –

de: –

fr: trempe dans la masse

es: –

en: press hardening, die hardening

de: –

fr: trempe a la presse, trempe sur presse

es: temple en prensa

  • Hardening with cooling of the edge layer or a part of the workpiece in such a way that it is followed by tempering by the residual heat

en: hardening with self-tempering, hardening with autotempering

de: –

fr: –

es: temple con autorevenido

  • Hardening with heating at a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure and cooling in a gaseous or liquid medium

en: vacuum-furnace hardening

de: –

fr: –

es: –

  • Hardening with heating of the workpiece under inert gas in such a way that discolouration of its surface due to oxidation is avoided

en: bright hardening, clean hardening

de: –

fr: –

en: temple brillante

  • Hardening of locally heated areas of a workpiece with quenching of the austenitised areas by the cold metal mass

en: self-quench hardening

de: –

fr: –

es: –

  • Hardening in which quenching takes place by immersion in a liquid

en: immersion hardening

de: –

fr: –

es: temple por inmersion

  • Treatment that leads to an increase in the hardness of the workpiece

en: hardening

de: –

fr: durcissement, traitement de durcissement

es: endurecimiento

  • Any treatment that leads to an increase in hardness in the edge layer of the workpiece

en: surface hardening, case hardening

de: –

fr: durcissement superficiel

es: endurecimiento superficial

  • Any treatment that leads to an increase in the mechanical strength values of the workpiece

en: –

de: –

fr: –

es: aumento de la resistencia

Edge layer of a hardened workpiece, generally defined by the hardening depth.

de: Einhärtungsschicht, eingehärtete Randschicht

fr: couche durcie par trempe

es: capa templada

Cooling of a workpiece during heat treatment at a greater rate than in still air, generally to achieve unbalanced micro-structures.

de: Abschrecken

fr: trempe

es: enfriamiento rápido

Ability of a quenching agent to achieve certain values of hardening and setting under specified conditions (depends on the cooling capacity of the cooling medium and on the working conditions).

de: Abschreckvermögen

fr: pouvoir trempant

es: poder de temple, poder templante

Temperature from which a workpiece is quenched.

de: Abschrecktemperatur

fr: température de trempe

es: temperatura de enfriamiento rápido

Period of time from the time the workpiece is placed in a quenching agent until it is removed.

de: Abschreckdauer

fr: durée de trempe

es: tiempo de enfriamiento rápido

  • Time between leaving the heat treatment furnace and immersion in the quenching agent 

en: quench delay time, delay time

de: –

fr: –

es: tiempo de transferencia

The normalised numerical value of the cooling capacity of a quenching agent.

de: Abkühlintensität, Abschreckintensität

fr: indice de pouvoir refroidissant

es: severidad de temple

R

Radiation colour of a metallic material at a correspondingly high temperature.

de: Glühfarbe

fr: couleur de radiation

es: –

Annealing of a work-hardened workpiece below the recrystallisation temperature in order to at least partially restore the mechanical and physical properties existing before cold forming.

de: Erholungsglühen

fr: traitement de restauration, recuit de restauration

es: recocido de restauración

  • Recovery, stress-relief or recrystallisation annealing of wrought materials between one or more processing passes and generally before the final heat treatment of a workpiece 

en: process annealing, intermediate annealing, interstage annealing

de: –

fr: recuit intermédiaire

es: recocido intermedio

Annealing of a cold-worked metallic material to achieve a recrystallised structure.

de: Rekristallisationsglühen

fr: traitement de recristallisation

es: recocido de recristalización

  • Recovery, stress-relief or recrystallisation annealing of wrought materials between one or more processing passes and generally before the final heat treatment of a workpiece

en: process annealing, intermediate annealing, interstage annealing

de: –

fr: recuit intermédiaire

es: recocido intermedio

Cooling to temperatures that are usually considerably below room temperature. To maintain a certain microstructure state or to cause or continue a structural transformation; mainly used to transform retained austenite in hardened steel.

de: Tiefkühlen, Tieftemperaturbehandeln

fr: traitement par le froid

es: tratamiento subcero, temple subcero

Patenting after a thorough electrical resistance heating.

de: Widerstandspatentieren

fr: –

es: patentado por resistencia

S

Carburisation in a molten salt.

de: Salzbadaufkohlen

fr: cémentation en bain de sels

es: cementación en bano de sales

Hardening with quenching in a salt bath.

de: Salzbadhärten

fr: trempe en bain de sels

es: temple en bano de sales

Heat treatment carried out in a molten salt bath.

de: Salzbadwärmbehandlung

fr: traitement thermique en bain de sels

es: tratamiento térmico en bano de sales

Nitrocarburising in a molten salt generally containing cyanide.

de: Salzbadnitrocarburieren

fr: –

es: nitrocarburación en bano de sales

Bath patenting in a molten salt.

de: Salzbadpatentieren

fr: patentage en bain de sels

es: patentado en bano de sales

Hardening consisting of feed heating followed directly by quenching through a shower.

de: Vorschubhärten

fr: trempe au défile

es: temple progresivo, temple con avance

Heating of the workpiece with uninterrupted relative movement in longitudinal direction between workpiece and heat source.

de: Vorschubwärmen

fr: chauffage au défile

es: calentamiento progresivo, calentamiento con avance

Increase in hardness when hardened ferrous materials are tempered once or several times. This hardening is a result of precipitation and/or the transformation of retained austenite into martensite or bainite.

de: Sekundärhärtung

fr: durcissement secondaire

es: revenido secundario

Tempering by the residual heat still remaining in the hardened workpiece.

de: Selbstanlassen

fr: auto-revenu

es: autorevenido

Holding an austenitic stainless steel at a temperature at which chromium carbides precipitate at the grain boundaries for a sufficient time to make the material susceptible to inter granular corrosion.

Remark: This treatment is carried out to test the stress corrosion sensitivity of an austenitic steel.

de: Sensibilisieren

de: traitement de sensibilisation

es: sensibilización, recocido de sensibilización

Hardening of a carburised workpiece after subsequent cooling to a temperature below Ar1 and reheating to hardening temperature.

de: Einfachhärten

fr: durcissement par trempe simple

es: –

Annealing to achieve a sufficiently soft state of the material.

de: Weich glühen

fr: traitement d’adoucissement

es: recocido de ablandamiento

Annealing to dissolve precipitation and bring their components into solution.

de: Lösungsglühen

fr: traitement de mise en solution

es: recocido de solubilización

  • Solution annealing of austenitic stainless steels followed by quenching to prevent the formation of ferrite or precipitation of carbides

en: austennealing, quench annealing

de: –

fr: hypertrempe

es: hipertemple

  • Solution annealing followed by rapid cooling to keep the dissolved components in solution

de: solution heat treatment

de: –

fr: –

es: tratamiento de solubilización

Annealing of steel with generally prolonged maintaining at temperatures in the area around A1 – if necessary with oscillations around A1 so that the carbides take on a largely spherical form – and subsequent slow cooling.

de: Glühen auf kugelige Carbide

fr: recuit de sphéroïdisation, recuit de globulisation

es: recocido de globulización

Hardening consisting of circulating heat and directly following quenching.

de: Umlaufhärten

fr: trempe avec rotation

es: temple con rotación

Heating with relative movement in the direction of rotation between workpiece and heat source.

de: Umlaufwärmen

fr: chauffage avec rotation

es: calentamiento con rotación

Cooling of a workpiece with a sprayed liquid agent.

de: Sprühabkühlen, Sprühabschrecken

fr: refroidissement par aspersion, trempe par aspersion

es: enfriamiento por aspersión

Hardening with cooling by spraying with a liquid, usually water.

de: Sprühhärten

fr: trempe aux jets, trempe par aspersion

es: temple por aspersión

Heat treatment of a material or workpiece that results in largely unchanging structural condition and/or dimensional stability.

de: Stabilisieren

fr: traitement de stabilisation, stabilisation

es: tratamiento de estabilización

  • Stabilising, in which a workpiece is subjected to expected operating temperatures in order to trigger any resulting dimensional changes before it is used in operation

en: seasoning

de: –

fr: –

es: recocido de acondicionamiento

Annealing to precipitate and/or form fine structural components, e.g. to stabilise certain austenitic steels at 850°C.

de: Stabilglühen

fr: –

es: recocido de estabilizacion

Heating of the edge layer or a specific area of the workpiece without relative movement between workpiece and heat source.

de: Standwärmen

fr: chauffage statique

es: calentamiento estatico

Hardening with a brief interruption of quenching by holding in a suitable medium of predetermined temperature.

de: gestuftes Härten

fr: (trempe étagée)

es: temple escalonado

  • Broken hardening in a quenching agent with interruption of the cooling process before temperature equalisation has taken place in the workpiece

en: interrupted quenching

de: –

fr: trempe interrompue

es: temple interrumpido

  • Broken hardening where the maintaining time is fixed in the quenching agent

en: time quenching

de: –

fr: –

es: –

Ageing after plastic deformation.

de: Reckalterung

fr: –

es: envejecimiento por deformación

Annealing of a workpiece at a sufficiently high temperature followed by slow cooling to largely relieve internal stresses without significantly changing the microstructure and properties.

de: Spannungsarmglühen

fr: traitement de relaxation, recuit de relaxation

es: tratamiento de relajación de tensiones

  • Recovery, stress-relief or recrystallisation annealing of wrought materials between one or more processing passes and generally before the final heat treatment of a workpiece

en: process annealing, intermediate annealing, interstage annealing

de: –

fr: recuit intermédiaire

es: recocido intermedio

Heat treatment of a ferrous material with austenitising without long maintaining and cooling at an appropriate rate to refine the grain or make it more uniform.

de: Umkörnen

fr: traitement d’affinage structural

es: tratamiento de afino estructural del grano

Nitrocarburising, in which sulphur is deliberately diffused into the compound layer at the same time.

de: Sulfonitrocarburieren

fr: sulfonitrocarburation, sulfocarbonitration

es: sulfocarbonitración

Heat treatment in which the chemical composition of the workpiece, predominantly in the edge layer, is deliberately changed by diffusion of one or more elements.

de: Auflegieren im festen Zustand

fr: –

es: tratamiento térmico de difusión

Hardening in which only the edge layer of the workpiece is heated.

de: Randschichthärten

fr: durcissement par trempe après chauffage superficiel, trempe superficielle

es: temple superficial

Heating in which the desired temperature is only reached in areas of the workpiece close to the surface.

de: Randschichtwärmen

fr: chauffage superficiel

es: calentamiento superficial

T

Hardening and subsequent tempering in the upper possible temperature range to achieve the desired properties, good toughness with still sufficient strength.

de: Vergüten

fr: –

es: bonificado

Any of the interference colours produced by heat tinting a polished metal surface.

de: Anlauffarbe

fr: –

es: color de pavonado

Heating after reaching the target temperature in the outermost edge layer of a workpiece until temperature equalisation across the entire cross-section.

de: Durchwärmen

fr: chauffage d’égalisation

es: calentamiento profundo (hasta el nucleo)

Heating a hardened workpiece to a temperature between room temperature and Ac1 and maintaining it at this temperature, followed by appropriate cooling.

Remark: Tempering generally results in a reduction in hardness; however, for certain alloy steels, tempering can result in an increase in hardness due to secondary hardening.

de: Anlassen

fr: revenu

es: revenido

  • Multiple tempering of a hardened workpiece, usually performed at the same temperature

Remark: Generally carried out to achieve structural stability, especially with regard to retained austenite.

en: multiple tempering

de: mehrfaches Anlassen

fr: –

es: revenido múltiple

  • Double tempering a hardened workpiece, usually performed at the same temperature

en: double tempering

de: zweimaliges Anlassen

fr: –

es: doble revenido

  • Tempering with simultaneous application of pressure by means of a press to ensure the dimensional stability of the workpiece

en: press tempering

de: Anlassen unter gleichzeitiger Anwendung von Druck mittels einer Presse

fr: –

es: revenido en prensa

  • An intermediate tempering treatment applied to steels of high hardening capacity immediately after quenching to prevent cracking during the time until tempering at the prescribed tempering temperature

en: snap temper

de: zwischenzeitliche Anlassbehandlung

fr: –

es: revenido contra tensiones

de: Anlassen bei Temperaturen zwischen 250 °C und 500 °C

fr: –

es: revenido tenaz

Temperature at which a workpiece is maintained during tempering.

de: Anlasstemperatur

fr: –

es: temperatura de revenido

Period of time from beginning to end of maintaining at tempering temperature.

de: Anlassdauer

fr: –

es: tiempo de revenido

Heat treatment in the course of which the workpiece is subjected only to temperature-time sequences, but not to intended chemical or other physical effects.

de: thermische Behandlung

fr: –

es: tratamiento térmico propiament dicho

Heat treatment in which the chemical composition of a workpiece is deliberately changed by diffusing in or out one or more elements, at least in the edge layer.

de: thermochemische Behandlung

fr: traitement thermochimique

es: tratamiento tennoquimico

  • That area of the surface of a workpiece which reacts with the surrounding medium during a thermochemical treatment

en: reactive surface

de: –

fr: –

es: superficie reactiva

  • Thermochemical treatment to form titanium nitrides in the edge layer of a workpiece

en: nitrotitanizing

de: –

fr: –

es: nitrotitanización

  • Thermochemical treatment for the formation of titanium carbide in the edge layer of a workpiece

en: carbotitanizing

de: –

fr: –

es: carbotitanización

Heat treatment in a magnetic field with the aim of changing the magnetic properties in certain ferromagnetic materials.

de: thermomagnetische Behandlung

fr: traitement thermomagnétique

es: tratamiento termomagnético

Combination of forming processes with heat treatments to achieve certain material properties.

de: thermomechanische Behandlung

fr: traitement thermomécanique

es: tratamiento termomecánico

Hardening in which the hardening depth is greater than or equal to the distance between the surface and the core.

de: Durchhärtung

fr: durcissement pur trempe à cœur

es: temple de núcleo, temple total

Heating until the target temperature is reached in the entire cross-section of the workpiece.

de: Erwärmen

fr: chauffage à cœur

es: calentamiento hasta el núcleo

Time-related temperature curve during a heat treatment. (Should not be used without specifying what it refers to, e.g. furnace, batch, etc.)

de: Temperatur-Zeit-Folge

fr: cycle thermique

es: ciclo térmico

de: Titannitrid

fr: nitrure de titane

es: nitruro de titanio

Vertical distance from the surface of a thermochemically treated workpiece to that layer in which the composition of the base material is achieved. It is practically indicated by a limit value.

de: Dicke der auflegierten Randschicht

fr: –

es: profundidad de difusión total

The entire area of the edge layer of a workpiece in which the chemical composition of the material has been changed by thermochemical treatment.

de: auflegierte Randschicht

fr: –

es: –

U

V

Annealing at a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure.

de: Unterdruckglühen

fr: recuit sous pression réduite, recuit sous vide

es: recocido en vacio

Gas carbonitriding carried out at a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure.

fr: Unterdruckcarbonitrieren

fr: carbonitruration sous pression réduite

es: carbonitruración en vacio

Gas carburising carried out at a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure.

fr: Unterdruckaufkohlen Niederdruckaufkohlen

fr: cémentation sous pression réduite

es: cementación en vacio

Heat treatment carried out at a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure.

de: Unterdruck-Wärmebehandlung

fr: traitement thermique sous pression réduite, traitement thermique sous vide

es: tratamiento térmico en vacio

Gas nitriding carried out at a pressure lower than atmospheric pressure.

de: Niederdrucknitrieren, Unterdrucknitrieren

fr: nitruration sous pression réduite

es: nitriding in vacuum

de: Vanadinnitrid

fr: nitrure de vanadium

es: nitruro de vanadio

de: Anlassen bei einem geringeren Druck als der Atmosphärendruck

fr: –

es: revenido en vacío

Thermochemical treatment to enrich the edge layer of a workpiece with boron and vanadium.

de: Borvanadieren

fr: –

es: vanadioboruración

W

Cooling of a workpiece by immersing it in water or spraying it with water.

de: Wasserabkühlen, Wasserabschrecken

fr: refroidissement a l’eau, trempe a l’eau

es: enfriamiento en agua

Hardening with quenching in water.

de: Wasserhärten

fr: –

es: temple en agua

Tempering in oxygen-releasing agents with the aim of largely reducing the carbon content by oxidation.

de: Tempern durch Entkohlen

fr: malléabilisation par décarburation

es: maleabilización de nucleo blanco

Z